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Linux Apache Web Server Administration \/\/FREE\\\\

This option specifies the configuration folder for the Apache web server. On Red Hat based distros, the ServerRoot option is /etc/httpd/ directory. On Debian distros the ServerRoot option is /etc/apache2/.

Linux Apache Web Server Administration


Please make a tutorial based on apache tuning for 1 processor 512M apache server and help me tune for any number of processors and memory. Please make a article on apache tuning for a server with decent resources.

hello ,i have installed apache webserver on redhat linux and i want to receive http request (on this url : ) from external sources and it needs to handled in the apache webserver. May I know the what configuration I need to be done in Apache.

/etc/sysconfig/apache2 controls some global settings of Apache, like modules to load, additional configuration files to include, flags with which the server should be started, and flags that should be added to the command line. Every configuration option in this file is extensively documented and therefore not mentioned here. For a general-purpose Web server, the settings in /etc/sysconfig/apache2 should be sufficient for any configuration needs.

To list all existing virtual hosts, use the command apache2ctl -S. This outputs a list showing the default server and all virtual hosts together with their IP addresses and listening ports. Furthermore, the list also contains an entry for each virtual host showing its location in the configuration files.

If you have activated external modules manually, make sure to load their configuration files in all virtual host configurations. Configuration files for external modules are located under /etc/apache2/conf.d/ and are loaded in /etc/apache2/default-server.conf by default. For more fine-grained control you can comment out the inclusion in /etc/apache2/default-server.conf and add it to specific virtual hosts only. See /etc/apache2/vhosts.d/vhost.template for examples.

Provides a comprehensive overview of the server configuration under -info/. For security reasons, you should always limit access to this URL. By default only localhost is allowed to access this URL. mod_info is configured at /etc/apache2/mod_info.conf.

Provides information on server activity and performance under -status/. For security reasons, you should always limit access to this URL. By default, only localhost is allowed to access this URL. mod_status is configured at /etc/apache2/mod_status.conf.

Copy the certificate files to the relevant directories, so that the Apache server can read them. Make sure that the private key /etc/apache2/ssl.key/server.key is not world-readable, while the public PEM certificate /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server.crt is.

The last step is to copy the public certificate file from /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server.crt to a location where your users can access it to incorporate it into the list of known and trusted CAs in their Web browsers. Otherwise a browser complains that the certificate was issued by an unknown authority.

Linux is the operating system that handles the operations of the application. Apache is the web server that processes requests and serves web assets and content via HTTP. MySQL is the database that stores all your information in an easily queried format. PHP is the programming language that works with apache to help create dynamic web content.

Real-world testing is crucial to the security of your server. Small configuration errors may lead to serious security breaches and loss of data. Because recommended security practices change constantly in response to research and emerging threats, periodic security audits are essential to good server administration.

ServerName your-server-hostname ServerAdmin DocumentRoot /var/www/sub-domains/your-server-hostname/html DirectoryIndex index.php index.htm index.html Alias /icons/ /var/www/icons/ # ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/sub-domains/your-server-hostname/cgi-bin/ CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/your-server-hostname-access_log" combined ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/your-server-hostname-error_log" Options -ExecCGI -Indexes AllowOverride None Order deny,allow Deny from all Allow from all Satisfy all Once the file is created, we need to write (save) it with: shift : wq

For Demo purpose, we shall configure apache to make a virtual host for and another for This will be like a reference guide, but you should substitute your own site/domains.

Packaged web applications usually restrict access by default so you can access them only from the server host itself, to ensure you can run all initial configuration safely and things like administration interfaces are not left accessible to the public. For information on how to broaden access, see Enabling access to web applications.

If your site is hosted you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else or for detailed instructions, see the page for your chosen database server:

The next step is to set up the web server configuration for the domain. The Apache configuration directory is /etc/apache2 and apache2.conf is main Apache configuration file. Each domain needs its own Virtual Host configuration file.

Anonymous users are the visitors to your website. Although they don't have permissions to access files directly, they can request a web page and the web server acts on their behalf. You can limit the access of anonymous users by being careful about what permissions the web server process has. On many Linux distributions, Apache runs as the www-data user but it can be different. Use ps aux grep httpd or ps aux grep apache to see what user Apache is using on your system.

As an additional precaution, ensure that all directories that can be reached by unprivileged users have appropriate file system permissions. Unprivileged users should at a minimum (with the exception explained below) not be able to write to directories within the Web server. All Web-related files should be owned by you, the Webmaster. Of all the directories Apache uses, ServerRoot (and the files it contains) is by far the most important. It is thus critical that ServerRoot in particular is protected against modification by unprivileged users. ServerRoot itself, its parent directories, its files, and its subdirectories should be writable only by root. If, for instance, you make /usr/local/apache the ServerRoot, you should chown ownership of this directory as well as its child directories to root (uid 0). Use the following commands:

However, Apache Virtual Hosts let you create multiple sites on a single server and are an important concept in Apache web server administration. So, let's create a Virtual Host for our site by following these steps: 041b061a72

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