Victoria 2 Patch 1.4 (patch Only) Dna Hack
Bovine pericardium is widely used in surgery and is commonly used for a patch after arteriotomy during cardiovascular surgery. Bovine pericardial patches have several advantages compared to prosthetic patches, including superior biocompatability, easy handling, less suture line bleeding and possibly reduced rates of infection. These advantages of bovine pericardium have led to its common use during carotid endarterectomy. However, long-term clinical results reported after carotid endarterectomy have suggested several issues that may be related to the patch including restenosis, pseudoaneurysm formation, infection, fibrosis, calcification and thrombosis. These complications may diminish the long-term efficacy of carotid endarterectomy and suggest potential areas for improvement of surgical patches. Understanding the mechanisms by which bovine pericardium heals after patch angioplasty may lead to next generation tissue engineered patches. PMID:21276709
Victoria 2 Patch 1.4 (patch Only) Dna Hack
Pretreatment with antibiotics is commonly performed before surgical implantation of prosthetic materials. We previously showed that pericardial patches are infiltrated by macrophages and arterial stem cells after implantation into an artery. We hypothesized that antibiotic pretreatment would diminish the number of cells infiltrating into the patch, potentially affecting early neointimal formation. Bovine pericardial patches were pretreated with saline, bacitracin (500 U/mL), or cephalexin (10 mg/mL) for 30 minutes before implantation into the Wistar rat infrarenal aorta. Patches were retrieved on day 7 or day 30 and analyzed for histology and cell infiltration. Markers of proliferation, apoptosis, vascular cell identity, and M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes were examined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Extracted proteins were analyzed by Western blot. At day 7, pericardial patches pretreated with bacitracin or cephalexin showed similar amounts of neointimal thickening (P = .55) and cellular infiltration (P = .42) compared with control patches. Patches pretreated with antibiotics showed similar proliferation (P = .09) and apoptosis (P = .84) as control patches. The cell composition of the neointima in pretreated patches was similar to control patches, with a thin endothelial layer overlying a thin layer of smooth muscle cells (P = .45), and containing similar numbers of CD34-positive (P = .26) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive (P = .31) cells. Interestingly, within the body of the patch, there were fewer macrophages (P = .0003) and a trend towards fewer endothelial progenitor cells (P = .051). No M1 macrophages were found in or around any of the patches. M2 macrophages were present around the patches, and there was no difference in numbers of M2 macrophages surrounding control patches and patches pretreated with antibiotics (P = .24). There was no difference in neointimal thickness at day 30 between control
Bovine pericardium (BP) is widely used in surgery and is commonly used as a patch after arteriotomy in cardiovascular surgery. BP patches have several advantages compared with prosthetic patches, including superior biocompatability, easy handling, less suture line bleeding, and possibly reduced rates of infection. These advantages of BP have led to its common use during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). However, long-term clinical results reported after CEA have suggested several issues that may be related to the patch, including restenosis, pseudoaneurysm formation, infection, fibrosis, calcification, and thrombosis. These complications may diminish the long-term efficacy of CEA and suggest potential areas for improvement of surgical patches. Understanding the mechanisms by which BP heals after patch angioplasty may lead to next generation tissue-engineered patches. Published by Elsevier Inc.
One major limitation of intervertebral disc (IVD) repair is that no ideal biomaterial has been developed that effectively mimics the angle-ply collagen architecture and mechanical properties of the native annulus fibrosus (AF). Furthermore, it would be beneficial to devise a simple, scalable process by which to manufacture a biomimetic biomaterial that could function as a mechanical repair patch to be secured over a large defect in the outer AF that will support AF tissue regeneration. Such a biomaterial would: (1) enable the employment of early-stage interventional strategies to treat IVD degeneration (i.e. nucleus pulposus arthroplasty); (2) prevent IVD re-herniation in patients with large AF defects; and (3) serve as a platform to develop full-thickness AF and whole IVD tissue engineering strategies. Due to the innate collagen fibre alignment and mechanical strength of pericardium, a procedure was developed to assemble multi-laminate angle-ply AF patches derived from decellularized pericardial tissue. Patches were subsequently assessed histologically to confirm angle-ply microarchitecture, and mechanically assessed for biaxial burst strength and tensile properties. Additionally, patch cytocompatibility was evaluated following seeding with bovine AF cells. This study demonstrated the effective removal of porcine cell remnants from the pericardium, and the ability to reliably produce multi-laminate patches with angle-ply architecture using a simple assembly technique. Resultant patches demonstrated their inherent ability to resist biaxial burst pressures reminiscent of intradiscal pressures commonly borne by the AF, and exhibited tensile strength and modulus values reported for native human AF. Furthermore, the biomaterial supported AF cell viability, infiltration and proliferation. Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Restoration of retinal continuity by a patching technique is proposed as a new means of treating selected rhegmatogenous retinal detachments where established techniques frequently fail. The patch consists of a substrate and adhesive applied to the inner surface of the retina surrounding the retinal break. Bovine eye cup experiments have been performed to explore the effectiveness of a range of adhesives, and cyanoacrylates and Tisseel have been found to be effective. Studies of these adhesives on confluent cultures of bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells and glia revealed temporary cyanoacrylate toxicity and stimulation of proliferation by Tisseel. Substrate biocompatability was investigated by observing the growth of cells on various substrates in tissue culture; biological substrates such as lens capsule supported cell growth whereas synthetic membranes only did so if pretreated with fibronectin.
An acquisition and analysis program, "LabPatch," has been developed for use in patch-clamp research. LabPatch controls any patch-clamp amplifier, acquires and records data, runs voltage protocols, plots and analyzes data, and connects to spreadsheet and database programs. Controls within LabPatch are grouped by function on one screen, much like an oscilloscope front panel. The software is mouse driven, so that the user need only point and click. Finally, the ability to copy data to other programs running in Windows 95/98, and the ability to keep track of experiments using a database, make LabPatch extremely versatile. The system requirements include Windows 95/98, at least a 100-MHz processor and 16 MB RAM, a data acquisition card, digital-to-analog converter, and a patch-clamp amplifier. LabPatch is available free of charge at
The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model. The dispersing population inhabits a landscape structured into many patches of two types and disperses during a continuous-time season. The trait under consideration is a four dimensional vector consisting of two values for emigration probability from the patches and two values for immigration probability into the patches of each type. Using the adaptive dynamics approach I show that four qualitatively different dispersal strategies may evolve in different parameter regions, including a counterintuitive strategy, where patches of one type are fully dispersed from (emigration probability is one) but individuals nevertheless always immigrate into them during the dispersal season (immigration probability is one). I present examples of evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range, when the patches with high local death rate during the dispersal season guarantee a high expected disperser output. I find that two dispersal strategies can coexist after evolutionary branching: a strategy with full immigration only into the patches with high expected disperser output coexists with a strategy that immigrates into any patch. Stochastic simulations agree with the numerical predictions. Since evolutionary branching is also found when immigration evolves alone, the present study is adding coevolutionary constraints on the emigration traits and hence finds that the coevolution of a higher dimensional trait sometimes hinders evolutionary diversification. Copyright 2017
Mozzarella cheese is a classical dairy product but most research to date has focused on low moisture products. In this study, the microstructure and physicochemical properties of both laboratory and commercially produced high moisture buffalo Mozzarella cheeses were investigated and compared to high moisture bovine products. Buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses were found to significantly differ in their microstructure, chemical composition, organic acid and proteolytic profiles but had similar hardness and meltability. The buffalo cheeses exhibited a significantly higher ratio of fat to protein and a microstructure containing larger fat patches and a less dense protein network. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detected the presence of only β-casein variant A2 and a single β-lactoglobulin variant in buffalo products compared to the presence of both β-casein variants A1 and A2 and β-lactoglobulin variants A and B in bovine cheese. These differences arise from the different milk composition and processing conditions. The differences in microstructure and physicochemical properties observed here offer a new approach to identify the sources of milk used in commercial cheese products. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.