1 : Or Not To [B]e
"To be, or not to be" is the opening phrase of a speech given by Prince Hamlet in the so-called "nunnery scene" of William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1. In the speech, Hamlet contemplates death and suicide, weighing the pain and unfairness of life against the alternative, which might be worse. The opening line is one of the most widely known and quoted lines in modern English literature, and the speech has been referenced in many works of theatre, literature, and music. Hamlet is not alone as he speaks because Ophelia is on stage waiting for him to see her and Claudius and Polonius have concealed themselves to hear him. Even so, Hamlet seems to consider himself alone and there is no definite indication that the others hear him before he addresses Ophelia, so the speech is almost universally regarded as a soliloquy.
1 : Or Not to [B]e
The First Quarto is a short early text of Hamlet. Though it was published in 1603, it was lost or not known until a copy was discovered in 1823. It contains a number of unique characteristics and oddities. When it was discovered, it was thought to be an earlier version than the Second Quarto, but is now considered by scholars to be derivative, or pirated and imperfectly remembered. In the version below, the spelling is updated, along with minor alterations of scansion, capitalization and punctuation.
To be, or not to be, Ay there's the point,To Die, to sleep, is that all? Aye all:No, to sleep, to dream, aye marry there it goes,For in that dream of death, when we awake,And borne before an everlasting Judge,From whence no passenger ever returned,The undiscovered country, at whose sightThe happy smile, and the accursed damn'd.But for this, the joyful hope of this,Who'd bear the scorns and flattery of the world,Scorned by the right rich, the rich cursed of the poor?The widow being oppressed, the orphan wrong'd,The taste of hunger, or a tyrants reign,And thousand more calamities besides,To grunt and sweat under this weary life,When that he may his full Quietus make,With a bare bodkin, who would this endure,But for a hope of something after death?Which puzzles the brain, and doth confound the sense,Which makes us rather bear those evils we have,Than fly to others that we know not of.Aye that, O this conscience makes cowards of us all,Lady in thy orizons, be all my sins remembered.
The text of the Second Quarto (Q2) is considered the earliest version of the play. In Q2 the whole nunnery scene including "To be" takes place later in the play than in Q1 where it occurs directly after Claudius and Polonius have planned it. The inclusion of "Soft you now", suggests that Hamlet has not (or is feigning having not) seen Ophelia thus far during his speech.
To be, or not to be, that is the question,Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to sufferThe slings and arrows of outragious fortune,Or to take Arms against a sea of troubles,And by opposing, end them, to die to sleepNo more, and by a sleep, to say we endThe heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocksThat flesh is heir too; tis a consumationDevoutly to be wish'd to die to sleep,To sleep, perhance to dream, ay, there's the rub,For in that sleep of death what dreams may comeWhen we haue shuffled off this mortal coilMuſt giue vs pauſe, there's the reſpectThat makes calamitie of ſo long life:For who would beare the whips and ſcorns of time,Th'oppreſſors wrong, the proude mans contumly,The pangs of deſpiz'd loue, the lawes delay,The inſolence of office, and the ſpurnesThat patient merrit of the'vnworthy takes,When he himſelfe might his quietas makeWith a bare bodkin; who would fardels beare,To grunt and ſweat vnder a wearie life,But that the dread of ſomething after death,The vndiſcouer'd country, from whose borneNo trauiler returnes, puzzels the will,And makes vs rather beare thoſe ills we haue,Then flie to others we know not of.Thus conſcience dooes make cowards,And thus the natiue hiew of reſolutionIs ſickled ore with the pale caſt of thought,And enterpriſes of great pitch and moment,With this regard theyr currents turne awry,And loose the name of action. Soft you now,The faire Ophelia, Nimph in thy orizonsBe all my ſinnes remembred.
Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies, published by Isaac Jaggard and Ed Blount in 1623 and better known as the "First Folio", includes an edition of Hamlet largely similar to the Second Quarto. The differences in "To be" are mostly typographic, with increased punctuation and capitalization.
A plot point of the 1942 film comedy To Be or Not to Be involves the first line of the monologue. In the 1957 comedy film A King in New York, Charlie Chaplin recites the monologue in the shoes of the ambiguous King Shahdov.
Star Trek's sixth film (1991) was named after the "Undiscovered Country" line from this soliloquy, albeit the Klingon interpretation in which the title refers to the future and not death. References are made to Shakespeare during the film including Klingon translations of his works and the use of the phrase "taH pagh, taHbe' ", roughly meaning "whether to continue, or not to continue [existence]."
Stargate Atlantis, the Season 4 Episode 10 named "This Mortal Coil" (2008) after the soliloquy, as well as Season 4 Episode 11 named "Be All My Sins Remember'd" (2008). These episodes involved learning about and fighting the artificial intelligence species Replicator.
The virtuoso soliloquy in Carl Michael Bellman's Fredman's Epistle "Ack du min moder" was described by the poet and literary historian Oscar Levertin as "the to-be-or-not-to-be of Swedish literature".
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The non-Federal entity must have and use documented procurement procedures, consistent with the standards of this section and 200.317, 200.318, and 200.319 for any of the following methods of procurement used for the acquisition of property or services required under a Federal award or sub-award.
The amendment makes clear that all papers relating to discovery which are required to be served on any party must be served on all parties, unless the court orders otherwise. The present language expressly includes notices and demands, but it is not explicit as to answers or responses as provided in Rules 33, 34, and 36. Discovery papers may be voluminous or the parties numerous, and the court is empowered to vary the requirement if in a given case it proves needlessly onerous.
In actions begun by seizure of property, service will at times have to be made before the absent owner of the property has filed an appearance. For example, a prompt deposition may be needed in a maritime action in rem. See Rules 30(a) and 30(b)(2) and the related notes. A provision is added authorizing service on the person having custody or possession of the property at the time of its seizure.
Subdivision (d). By the terms of this rule and Rule 30(f)(1) discovery materials must be promptly filed, although it often happens that no use is made of the materials after they are filed. Because the copies required for filing are an added expense and the large volume of discovery filings presents serious problems of storage in some districts, the Committee in 1978 first proposed that discovery materials not be filed unless on order of the court or for use in the proceedings. But such materials are sometimes of interest to those who may have no access to them except by a requirement of filing, such as members of a class, litigants similarly situated, or the public generally. Accordingly, this amendment and a change in Rule 30(f)(1) continue the requirement of filing but make it subject to an order of the court that discovery materials not be filed unless filing is requested by the court or is effected by parties who wish to use the materials in the proceeding. 041b061a72